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Cyber-security is a broad term that encompasses all the processes and technology in place to protect information against cyber threats. This includes software, hardware and networks that store and process data. It also protects end-user applications and the people who use them. Cyber security measures are aimed at stopping cybercriminals, malicious insiders and others from accessing, harming or disrupting IT systems and applications.

The main entities that need protecting include computers, smart devices and routers; networks; and the cloud. Protecting them requires a combination of best practices, software, tools and technologies like DNS filtering, malware protection, antivirus software and firewalls. Another important piece is end-user education. This is to ensure that users, whether employees or customers, are aware of the potential risks and how to avoid them. It also includes promoting good habits, such as updating passwords regularly and using 2-factor authentication.

Effective cybersecurity reduces the risk of cyber attacks, which can lead to costly data breaches and disruptions. This is especially important for critical infrastructure, including power grids, transportation systems and healthcare networks.

As cyberattacks increase, so does the need for organizations and governments to implement cyber defense measures. To do so, they need to understand the threat landscape and develop a strategy that covers all aspects of their IT environments. This approach is more successful than traditional reactive approaches that focus on protecting against known risks.